Few inventions in modern times have had a greater impact on society and the economy than the automobile. It has given people more freedom and flexibility for business, travel, vacations, and personal activities than ever before. The automobile has also provided jobs in factories that manufacture and repair vehicles and in service industries such as gas stations and convenience stores. The automobile has also enabled new lifestyles, including suburban living and leisure travel.
The modern automobile is a complex technical system that comprises thousands of component parts with specific design functions. Its various systems include the body, chassis, engine, drivetrain, and control systems. It is designed to withstand the forces that act on it while driving and to provide for safety, comfort, and fuel efficiency.
A car’s suspension system helps it absorb shocks and variations in the road surface and keep the wheels on contact with the ground. The suspension system consists of springs that support the vehicle and shock absorbers, which dampen or quiet the movement of the springs with tubes and chambers filled with hydraulic fluid.
An automobile’s drivetrain consists of gears that convert the rotational torque of the motor to the mechanical force that propels the car. The torque of the engine is transmitted to the wheels through the transmission, which uses different gear ratios for a variety of conditions. The power from the engine is transferred to the road through a differential that transfers the torque from one wheel to the other.